From Maxwell’s equations it follows that , , , where is the magnetic constant.
Sinusoidal electromagnetic waves traveling in vacuum in the -direction: , , .
Electromagnetic waves in matter: , where is the permittivity of the dielectric, is its permeability, is its dielectric constant, and is its relative permeability.
Energy flow rate (power per unit area): (Poynting vector), the intensity .
Radiation pressure on a perpendicular surface: for a totally absorbing surface, for a perfect reflector.
Flow rate of electromagnetic momentum: .
Standing electromagnetic waves: If a perfect reflecting surface is placed at , the incident and reflected waves form a standing wave. Nodal planes for occur at , and nodal planes for are at