**From Maxwell’s equations it follows that** , , , where is the magnetic constant.

**Sinusoidal electromagnetic waves** traveling in vacuum in the -direction: , , .

**Electromagnetic waves in matter:** , where is the permittivity of the dielectric, is its permeability, is its dielectric constant, and is its relative permeability.

**Energy flow rate** (power per unit area): (Poynting vector), the intensity .

**Radiation pressure** on a perpendicular surface: for a totally absorbing surface, for a perfect reflector.

**Flow rate of electromagnetic momentum****:** .

**Standing electromagnetic waves:** If a perfect reflecting surface is placed at , the incident and reflected waves form a standing wave. Nodal planes for occur at , and nodal planes for are at

### Like this:

Like Loading...